Bourbon coffee – Queen of coffees
Taking its name from the island of Bourbon, Bourbon coffee with its sweetness and lightness has conquered many generations. So what is Bourbon coffee? What is the origin and taste of this coffee? Let’s find out with 43 Factory Coffee Roaster through the article below!
What is Bourbon Coffee? Biological characteristics of Bourbon coffee
Bourbon is a coffee variety that belongs to a subspecies of Arabica (a natural mutation from Typica of genetic importance in the world). As mentioned, Bourbon coffee got its name and originated from the French island of Bourbon, first brought to Vietnam by the French in 1875. At that time, they established a number of coffee plantations to cultivate this Specialty coffee variety.
In terms of biology, Bourbon coffee trees usually have a single main root (if joined from Yemen) and often form many stems (if joined from Ethiopia). Bourbon fruit when ripe can be red, orange and yellow depending on the variety (red or yellow fruit is common). Talking about the shape of coffee beans, one of the identifying characteristics of Arabica Bourbon is that the coffee beans have a rounder shape compared to Typica and other Arabica varieties. In terms of color and size of leaves, young leaves are green or yellow copper, while mature leaves are larger than Typica leaves with wide and wavy shapes. The side branches of the Bourbon coffee plant usually grow at an angle of about 60° to the main stem.
Bourbon coffee trees are usually very well adapted to areas with altitudes from 1000-2000m above sea level, with abundant rain and high humidity all year round.
Bourbon is a coffee variety that belongs to a subspecies of the Arabica variety
Original cultivation of Bourbon coffee
Bourbon coffee trees were first discovered on an island of Madagascar called Reunion (today known as Bourbon Island). After that, because it has a characteristic taste of mild acid mixed with wine and is quite sweet, it became very popular. In the 16th century, Bourbon was grown in southwestern Ethiopia and the Boba Plateau of Sudan.
It was not until the 19th century that French missionaries brought this plant across Africa and successfully planted it. Today, this type of coffee is grown very popularly in Brazil, El Salvador, Costa Rica and even Vietnam.
Main varieties of Bourbon coffee
Bourbon is one of three main “siblings” including Arabica Heirloom and Arabica Typica coffees. The Bourbon subspecies of Arabica can be divided into:
The main lines are:
– SL 28
– SL 34
– Caturra – a natural mutation of Bourbon, it has a lower tree than Bourbon coffee.
– Moka / Mocha / Mokka
– Tekisik (or Tekisic)
– Villa Sarchi (Costa Rica)
– Pacas (El Salvador) – also a variant of Bourbon and they are very popular in the world.
– Pointu Bourbon / Laurina
Some Bourbon hybrids:
– Yellow Bourbon: A hybrid between Amarellow de Botucatu and Caturra
– Mundo Novo: a cross between Java and red Bourbon
In addition, some varieties (varieties or hybrids developed by farmers) include a mixture of these and other subspecies. They are selected by farmers based on specific characteristics that make them ideal for growing in certain climates, sometimes specific to certain countries. For example, the fragrant El Molino Buena Vista seeds from El Salvador are a cross between Red Catuai and Bourbon.
Planting area of Bourbon coffee varieties
Thanks to high productivity as well as great economic profits, Bourbon coffee has grown rapidly since it was first cultivated on the island of Bourbon. Today, Bourbon coffee is also widely available in most countries around the world.
Bourbon coffee in the world
Currently, in Latin America, the production of Specialty coffee is still based on a large number of varieties of Typica and Bourbon. First appeared in the Americas in 1860 in southern Brazil, and from there Bourbon coffee was bred in North America and to Central America. Today this coffee variety is grown in several regions including Colombia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Tanzania, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Rwanda, Burundi, El Salvador, Malawi, Nicaragua, Mexico, Sumatra, Puerto Rico, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Australia.
Out of 40% of coffee production in Brazil, up to 97.55% of coffee varieties originate from Bourbon and Typica.
Brazil has a large production of coffee originating from Bourbon
Vietnam Bourbon coffee
Bourbon grown in Da Lat is considered the most valuable coffee in Vietnam and has a flavor quality comparable to the best coffee in the world today. This is also considered a rare type of coffee, in Da Lat there are only about 500 trees left (according to the synthesis of Vietnamese and Japanese coffee experts).
Similar to Typica, Bourbon was also brought into Vietnam by the French in 1875. They set up many coffee plantations to cultivate in the form of crop farms. Later, this Bourbon coffee was renamed “Coffee Moka” or Mocha – named after the port of Mocha in Yemen.
Bourbon Dalat coffee, after being harvested and processed, is marketed under the brand name “Arabica du Tonkin”. It is famously delicious.
The taste of Bourbon coffee
Compared to other coffee varieties, beans from Bourbon coffee plants tend to be rich in sweetness. Because it is a coffee variety with a rich organic acidity, it has a complex and delicate flavor with a hint of sourness (less acidity than Typica). However, the flavor of Bourbon coffee will depend on where they are grown. And according to the common opinion of many people, Bourbon is a coffee variety with an extremely attractive aroma, which can be said to be the “queen” of coffees.
Bourbon coffee is part of the world’s best specialty coffee. With its own characteristics of growing conditions and aroma, Bourbon has always been the choice of original coffee enthusiasts.
However, the production of Bourbon coffee in Vietnam is currently very low, mostly concentrated in Da Lat. As for taste, Bourbon Dalat is unlike any other country. Because they carry the aroma of jasmine flowers, mixed with a little sourness of fruit, mixed with the sweet taste of “spring”. It is this special feature that makes this coffee in Vietnam in general and in Da Lat in particular highly appreciated and sought after by many tourists and international partners.
Have you ever enjoyed Bourbon coffee? Come to 43 Factory Coffee Roaster to enjoy a cup of delicious El Molino Buena Vista with Bourbon flavor!
>>> Maybe you like Caturra coffee. Let’s find out it: Caturra coffee – Origin, characteristics and distribution area