Arabica coffee production is under serious threat due to global warming
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Global warming is seriously threatening the situation of Arabica coffee production. According to a study by Nature Food, if the global average temperature cannot be controlled at less than 2 degrees Celsius, Arabica coffee production will decline without stopping, supply will be interrupted and coffee prices will skyrocket. . This not only affects coffee lovers, but also threatens the multi-billion dollar coffee industry and the livelihoods of millions of farmers, especially in the developing world. To find out in detail, let’s explore with 43 Factory Coffee Roaster through this article!
Global warming reduces the area of arabica coffee growing
Arabica coffee is a type of coffee grown mainly in the tropical regions of Latin America, Africa and some Asian countries. Arabica coffee production plays an important role in the economy and society of this country. They are almost the main source of income for millions of farmers in the developing world, some of whom depend entirely on Arabica coffee crops. Therefore, maintaining the coffee area and yield is a matter of survival for farmers and producers.
However, Arabica coffee only grows well in regions with high altitudes and cool climates, with an average annual temperature of 17-23℃. When the temperature is high or the drought is prolonged, the coffee yield will decrease significantly. This happened in Brazil in 2021, when a record drought reduced the country’s coffee production to about two-thirds of normal, causing huge fluctuations in coffee prices across the world. international markets. In addition, when the global temperature is warming, the ice at the two poles of the globe melts quickly, the sea level rises, and the suitable coffee-growing area shrinks. According to research results from Humboldt University (Berlin) and the Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) if global warming continues and is not controlled, about 50% of the world’s coffee land will be grown by 2020. 2050 will gradually disappear.
Arabica coffee yield plummeted under the impact of global warming
A study supported by the Federal Department for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety – International Climate Initiative (IKI) says that global warming will cause vapor pressure deficits to increase. resulting in a decrease in the yield of Arabica coffee. Vapor pressure deficit (VPD) is the difference between the vapor pressure of the air and the saturated vapor pressure. It indicates the amount of water evaporating from the plant. You can imagine when you are out on a hot sunny day and your lips are dry and cracked, it is because the air has a high vapor pressure deficit that causes moisture to be sucked out of the body causing dehydration. For coffee plants, when the vapor pressure deficit exceeds a certain level, the plant does not have enough water to maintain metabolism, which can lead to a sharp decrease in Arabica coffee yield.
According to the data from the study, when the VPD level exceeds the threshold of 0.82 kilopascals (a unit of measurement of pressure, which depends on temperature and humidity), the yield of Arabica coffee will decrease by about 400kg/ha, less than half the rate. long-run average global output. The study also said that there are now regions that have surpassed alarming deficit thresholds such as Kenya, Mexico and Tanzania. If climate change continues to worsen, the major coffee-producing countries will be in danger. Besides, if the average global temperature rises from 2℃ to 3℃, the coffee-growing regions that account for 81% of global production Peru, Honduras, Venezuela, Ethiopia, Nicaragua, Colombia and Brazil will be at risk. above the vapor pressure deficit threshold. This will cause coffee-growing households to suffer a great loss, supply disruptions, and escalating coffee prices that seriously affect global economic sustainability.
How do coffee farmers and producers deal with global warming?
There are ways farmers can deal with the challenges posed by global warming, but it’s not always easy.
The simple solution that farmers often think of first is watering coffee trees to help sustain life, against the effects of cupping deficit. But this requires high costs and an abundant source of clean water. Meanwhile, many coffee-growing countries are facing water scarcity due to drought and pollution, and small-scale farmers do not have enough resources to pay for electricity and water bills, irrigation equipment or Necessary water filtration system. Moreover, watering the plants cannot completely compensate for the lack of vapor pressure caused by the high temperature, causing the coffee plants to become dehydrated and weak.
Another measure is to use other coffee varieties. However, choosing and converting to a new breed is not easy. Varieties of coffee with Voi – the second largest coffee in the world can’t withstand high temperatures. Other species such as Coffea stenophylla, Coffea liberica,… have the potential to withstand their large-scale production effects under climate change conditions that are still unclear.
Despite difficulties, coffee farmers can still hold on if there is support from the state, organizations and agencies and the cooperation of consumers. Therefore, to protect the coffee industry and the millions of coffee farmers around the world, we need to act now to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions that cause global warming. Keeping global warming below 2℃ is important not only so we can continue to drink coffee every day, but also to ensure that coffee farmers have a steady source of income and a sustainable future for themselves and their families.
In addition, use sustainable coffee products grown according to scientific methods, minimizing adverse impacts on climate change to protect the environment. You can choose sustainable coffee products created by farmers who work with passion and responsibility at XLIII Coffee to contribute to the sustainability of nature and the whole coffee industry!
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