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Coffee roasting standards

Roasting coffee is not easy. There are many roasting coffee standards. Becoming an excellent roaster requires dedication, practice, and constant experimentation. Let’s explore in the following article!

Tìm hiểu các thuật ngữ chuyên ngành trong rang xay cà phê

Explore roasting coffee standards


The first roasting coffee standard: Charge temperature 


Charge temperature (or Charge-temp) is the temperature inside the roasting drum as soon as it starts roasting – ie the temperature when coffee is loaded into the roasting drum. This temperature will create enough thermal momentum to complete the roasting. Temperatures that are too low can affect seed development, causing underdeveloped beans. Conversely, too high of a temperature risk scorching the grain.

Charge temperature – Nhiệt độ nạp hay còn gọi là nhiệt độ sạc

Charge temperature

Generally, particle density is also important when considering the inlet temperature, as solid particles may require higher charging temperatures than soft porous particles. Naturally processed coffee requires a lower initial charge temperature than wet-processed coffee. This is because processed coffees are naturally higher in sugar, causing them to burn quickly and easily.


Cinnamon – slight roasting coffee standard


Cinnamon Roast is the name of a very light roast of Specialty coffee beans. In this roasting, the beans are barely first cracked, resulting in relatively dry and light brown beans. Coffee brewed from Cinnamon Roast usually has a sour taste, regardless of origin.

Cà phê Brazil rang Cinnamon điển hình ở 196°C

Typical Cinnamon Roasted Brazilian Coffee at 196°C

We will classify roasted coffee relatively according to the following 3 levels of roasting:

1. Cinnamon roast – Light Roast

2. Medium Roast / American Roast, City Roast

3. Dark Roast / Full city roast, Vienna Roast, French Roast, Italian Roast


City roasts – Medium roasting coffee standard


City Roasts is the name applied to the medium roast segment to indicate the moderate roasting level of coffee beans. During this roasting, the beans have undergone their first crack, resulting in dry beans with a medium brown color. Coffee brewed from roasted City Roasts beans will show the full flavor of the beans without being obscured by the roasting process.

Cà phê Brazil rang City Roast điển hình ở 220°C

Typical City Roast Brazilian Coffee at 220°C

City Roast or American Roast is the most commonly used roast grade, and it makes up the majority of coffee consumed in the United States. Nowadays, roasting City Roasts is “fashionable” among consumers and pursued by young roasters, also known as “third wave”, and was once the norm in Nordic countries. Typical flavors that can be easily seen in City roast are sour, caramel, sweet (if well developed) and with floral and fruit flavors, which can have grassy, lemon and sour flavors if not fully developed.


French Roast – Dark roasting coffee standard


French Roast is the name applied to a segment (Dark Roast), to indicate the degree of very dark roasting of coffee beans. French Roast is usually removed after the second crack, about 240°C, if you continue to maintain it in the oven until about 245°C you will arrive at Italian Roast – the darkest roast level that can be used for the preparation.

Cà phê Brazil rang French Roast điển hình ở 240°C

Typical French Roast Brazilian Coffee at 240°C

Coffee when roasted to French Roast often has a dark brown color, shiny due to the oil inside the bean secreted more, the acidity (and natural characteristics of the bean) is also significantly reduced. Bitter tones will prevail, French Roast coffee is popular in the American West.


Full City Roast – Darker roasting coffee standard


Full City Roast is the name that refers to the degree of roasting (Dark Roast) of coffee beans with a darker color than roasting City Roast. In this roasting, the beans pass through the first crack, but stop before reaching the second crack. Most Full City Roast beans will be very dry, with intermittent patches of oil. Coffee brewed from Full City Roast often loses some of its green coffee characteristics.

Cà phê Brazil rang Full City Roast điển hình ở 225°C

Typical Full City Roast Brazilian Coffee at 225°C

With the roasted flavor predominating, the natural sugars in the nut are significantly reduced due to the caramelization reaction, and the acidity is almost completely suppressed. This makes Full City Roast feel heavy body (very rich) and homogeneous (because it has lost the original, characteristic flavors of the nut).


Vienna Roast


Vienna Roast – is the name applied to a segment, with the same level of dark roast (Dark Roast) of coffee beans. With the Vienna Roast, the beans undergo a second cracking and are removed at about 230°C (446°F). If they continue to grow in the roaster, the beans will quickly reach French Roast (at about 240°C) and Italian Roast (at about 245°C).

For Vienna Roast, the coffee beans turn dark brown, with light oil on the surface. Most of the carbohydrates participate in the reaction, so the coffee shows a distinct bitterness, caramel taste. Any characteristics (flavors) source Any individual root of the grain has become obscured from this level on.


Italian Roast – Darkest roasting coffee standard


Italian Roast – is the name applied to a segment (Dark Roast), to indicate the darkest possible roast of the coffee beans. This is the darkest roast for which the beans can still be used, the coffee is removed after the second crack, at about 245°C. After the Italian Roast, the coffee will turn to charcoal, not to any other extent.

There are many smaller stages in the Dark Roast range, classified by “bold” in turn: Full City Roast > Vienna Roast > French Roast > Italian Roast.

Cà phê Brazil rang Italia Roast điển hình ở 245°C

Typical Italian Roast Brazilian Coffee at 245°C

Italian Roast gives the beans their dark color and shiny surface from the natural oils in the beans. Coffee extracted from roasted Italian Roast beans will have very little of the natural properties inherent in the beans (such as fruity, fruity flavors…), especially the acidity of the beans is almost absent. The most significant one that can be felt is the intense bitter taste.




The term “development” in coffee is used almost exclusively when discussing roasting techniques. On the one hand, it can refer to a very specific stage in the roasting process and on the other hand, it refers to an overall concept of how the coffee is transformed.

When coffee is roasted, many processes and chemical reactions occur. If we cannot grow enough of these in the beans, the coffee may taste grassy, ​​sour, and not complex enough. When tasting the coffee, the drinker can recognize the effects of the roasting process and can tell that the coffee has been underdeveloped or that the coffee has been overgrown. ).

The time when the strongest (or most profound) development of the coffee beans takes place, usually marked after the first bang. However, it would be wise to discuss this on a time scale. Because a coffee that does not receive the necessary heat during roasting may still not grow well, even if the growing time is long.


Drum roaster 


Turn green coffee beans into brown beans with complex flavors depending on the roasting process. The most traditional – and still the most popular – way to roast coffee is on a rotary drum roaster. While there are many different types of machines on the market, they generally share a fairly simple principle: a large metal drum that holds the coffee inside, rotates around a shaft, and is heated from the outside (usually from under). Depending on the system, the operator can change many elements of the process. Air speed, temperature and drum speed can all be adjusted.


Fluid Bed Roasters 


The Fluid Bed is a kind of coffee roaster – but instead of using a roasting drum to heat and mix the beans, a fluidized bed roaster uses a continuous stream of high-temperature air that blows into the roasting chamber to heat it up. the coffee while stirring them up instead of the drum’s rotation (so it feels like they’re boiling). Normally, the Fluid-bed roaster does not have its own cooling mechanism, but still uses the built-in hot air blowing system (turning off the heat source from the furnace) so the cooling efficiency is not high (because the device is still very hot). Therefore, the operator must compromise the coffee quality in the default cooling mechanism or install a suitable cooler.


Rate of Rise (RoR)


Simply put, when the coffee beans are fresh, it has the ability to continuously absorb heat from a very hot roaster, so the bean temperature will increase continuously / every second. Gradually, the temperature difference between the coffee beans and the machine is lower, the beans will heat up more slowly/per second. And Rate of Rise (RoR) is a graph that shows the increase in temperature of coffee beans during roasting.

You will often hear people discussing high or low RoR. And to put it simply, a higher RoR means your roast is progressing faster; lower value means it is progressing more slowly.



Roast Profile 


A document (data file from computers) that records input and output parameters as well as the changes made during the roasting process, through a system of sensors installed on roasting machine.

The most essential part of a Roast Profile is the system of temperature charts recorded in real time during the roasting process, based on these charts we can track the flavor development stages of coffee beans. in the roaster, as well as understand how changes in the process affect the flavor of the finished coffee.


Roast Taste 


A general term that describes the different sensations associated with dark-roast coffee, including strength, caramel flavor, spiciness…  these properties are in contrast to the acidity of roasted coffee. light roast.


Second Crack


This is a stage in the coffee roasting process and usually occurs a few minutes after the first crack. More specifically, when the coffee reaches about 224 °C (435 °F), a “second bang” is heard, which indicates that the structure of the coffee is beginning to crack. If roasting continues further, the coffee will soon turn to charcoal and eventually burn.

Roasted coffee beans at the Second Crack stage will be slightly shiny as the oils begin to build up on the surface. This is seen as an indication of full flavor development of the nut with a more “heavier” Body than Light Roast or Medium Roast (which finishes roasting after the first bang) with smoky, spicy flavors predominating. position.


Very Dark – Brown Roast


Very Dark-Brown Roast is the name applied to a segment (Dark Roast), to indicate the degree of very dark roasting of coffee beans. Very Dark-Brown Roast indicates a very dark roast level, just ahead of the Italian Roast and behind the Vienna Roast (but still a Dark Roast in general).

After the second bang ends at about 240°C (464°F) the coffee beans are removed. With Very Dark-Brown Roast the coffee beans are almost black-roasted, the oil content on the surface is high, the acidity (acids) is significantly reduced, because most of the carbohydrates in the beans are caramelized, the coffee tends to show smell of smoke, charcoal, etc. Some other similar names such as Continental Roast, European Roast, Dark French, or Espresso Roast, French Roast.

Hopefully the article about coffee roasting standards will be useful to you. Let’s come to 43 factory coffee to enjoy cups of coffee made by love of barista!

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