How does climate change threaten the life of coffee plants?
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Climate change affects sea levels, temperatures and habitats. Extreme weather events such as drought, heavy rain, storms, floods, etc. are prolonged and erratic, making many plant species unable to adapt, causing serious damage to agriculture and global ecosystems. Meanwhile, coffee trees are famous for being difficult to grow, and extremely sensitive to climatic conditions. What impacts are they suffering from? Let’s find out with 43 Factory Coffee Roaster!
Climate change disrupts the coffee tree’s growth cycle
All biological processes taking place in plants (such as flowering, fruit development and fruit ripening) are dependent on external environmental factors such as temperature, humidity and light. The adaptation of a plant species to these factors determines its phenology, or seasonal cycle. In the past, plants’ natural responses to stimuli were predictable because of a stable climate. But now, climate change has disrupted this rule, causing physiological events to change unpredictably.
Climate change increases temperatures, reduces water availability and changes soil properties. This can cause the growth of coffee plants in the tropics and equatorial regions with hot and humid climates to happen faster than usual or lose some stages in their life cycle.
Alexis Espinosa – Technical Sales Manager at Agro Q SA said that climate change has caused the frequency of flowering to change, coffee flowers wither and die quickly, and the fruit is not large due to high temperatures during the pollination season. significantly reduce production efficiency. The long dry season makes the planting area seem to not have enough moisture, coffee trees lose fruit mass, causing reduced yield. Unstable rainfall adversely affects harvest time and fruit quality. In addition, a number of studies have shown that, when the climate is warming, combined with erratic weather changes can disturb the metabolism, cause physiological stress for coffee plants, and reduce their photosynthetic efficiency.
Climate change changes the habitat of coffee trees
The coffee belt” extends 25 degrees north of the equator and 30 degrees south, covering most of the tropical countries such as Brazil, Vietnam, Kenya, Madagascar,…. These are environments with ideal conditions. It seems that cool temperatures, high humidity, and abundant rainfall for coffee to grow, but also a vulnerable environment. Based on the results of annual research in each region, experts predict. that within the next 30 years, about 60% of the land in the present regions will not be able to continue to grow high-quality Arabica coffee. The coffee belt will gradually heat up, the soil will become saline due to global warming. and unpredictable natural disasters such as tornadoes, floods, etc.
However, climate change has also created new coffee-growing areas. Andres Lopez – General Manager of International Coffee Farms said, 20 years ago, coffee was not grown in areas above 6,000 feet because of slow growth and low yield. But now, we can see that the world’s most special, expensive and prized coffees like Hacienda La Esmeralda have been produced at this height.
Climate change causes outbreaks of pests and diseases that destroy coffee trees
Climate change creates favorable conditions for a number of pests that damage coffee plants to multiply and grow rapidly. Scientists said that pathogens such as rust, fruit borers, leaf borers, nematodes, etc. will spread at a dizzying speed and are difficult to control as the living environment gets hotter. Previously, diseases appeared only once a year, but due to high temperatures, they can arise at any time and attack coffee plantations with high frequency.
In addition, climate change is creating new pests and diseases such as anthracnose. This is a common fungal disease in other crops and only appears on fruit, but now it has spread to coffee flowers, causing damage to green coffee berries, affecting the yield of coffee crops. consecutively for many years.
What should coffee farmers do to cope with climate change?
Climate change is posing many challenges for coffee farmers, making the journey to produce delicious, quality coffee more arduous than ever. However, they also have many ways to turn around to fight these difficulties.
One of the most effective measures is the integration of farm management techniques based on agro-biodiversity and ecosystems. By taking advantage of available or renewable resources and energy from nature such as tides and solar energy, farmers can ensure that the farm remains efficient without spending too much capital or depending on the environment. infrastructure and outside support.
In addition, farmers can apply agroforestry methods to their coffee plantations. Through increasing forest cover, this farming practice can help control natural pests, conserve natural resources and reduce the impact of extreme climate events. However, this method can reduce productivity, so farmers need to consider factors such as location, resources, farm situation, and market to have suitable methods.
Besides, farmers can use biostimulants to enhance the health of coffee plants. These substances act as a stress vitamin mixture, increasing the plant’s resistance. According to Alexis – Technical Sales Manager at Agro Q SA, they will help coffee trees resist external threats, be less affected by severe climate changes, as well as changes in temperature and humidity. It can be seen that climate change is harmful to the growth of coffee trees. To adapt to climate change, the coffee industry needs new innovations to improve the resilience of trees and reduce the environmental impact. Otherwise, we can only face the situation of coffee trees disappearing over time. So let’s join 43 Factory Coffee Roaster to protect the environment, support sustainable coffee products like XLIII Coffee’s product lines, support farmers to help them be more resilient to the difficulties of climate change!