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Coffe cultivation and harvesting: A dance of nature and humanity


Have you ever felt the allure of a perfectly aromatic cup of coffee? Behind every flavor-packed bean lies a wondrous journey, from lush green gardens to meticulous cultivation and harvesting processes. Let’s take a moment to explore the secrets that infuse life into each coffee bean.


Ideal growing conditions for coffee plants


Origins in tropical Africa

The coffee plant, an essential crop originating from the tropical regions of Africa, has become a vital part of daily life for many people worldwide. According to research from the Western Highlands Agriculture and Forestry Science Institute, coffee plants thrive in annual average temperatures between 18-22°C, with temperature fluctuations not exceeding 5°C. Temperatures below 10°C and above 35°C adversely affect flowering, fruit setting, and overall plant development.

Optimal humidity and rainfall

Ideal air humidity for coffee plants ranges from 60-80%, with soil humidity best maintained between 60-70%. The International Coffee Organization (ICO) reports that suitable annual rainfall for coffee plants is between 1,500-2,000 mm, mainly concentrated in the rainy season and evenly distributed. However, prolonged heavy rain or drought can negatively impact both the yield and quality of coffee.

Sunlight and the importance of shade trees

Coffee plants prefer shade and require only about 50-70% of outdoor light intensity. Research by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) indicates that excessive light reduces leaf area, limits photosynthesis, and stresses the plant. Therefore, intercropping with shade trees like bananas, star fruit, and legumes is essential.

Soil requirements

Coffee plants need loose, organic-rich soil with good moisture retention. The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development recommends that ideal coffee-growing soil has a pH of 5.5-6.5, an absorption capacity of about 25-30 meq/100g of soil, and organic content above 2.5%.

Coffe cultivation and harvesting: A dance of nature and humanityLush coffee trees with verdant green foliage thrive in a coffee plantation – the starting point for the meticulous process of cultivating and harvesting coffee to create the exquisite flavor in each cup of coffee later on.

Specialty Coffee cultivation

For producing Specialty Coffee, the growing conditions are even more stringent. Specialty Coffee is typically grown at altitudes above 1,000 meters above sea level, where the climate is cooler, the day-night temperature difference is significant, and the soil drains well. These conditions allow coffee beans to develop slowly, accumulating rich flavors and achieving exceptional quality.

By understanding and appreciating these intricate processes and conditions, we can truly savor the remarkable journey from coffee plant to cup, where nature and humanity perform a beautiful waltz.


Seeding and planting process


According to the Western Highlands Agriculture and Forestry Science Institute, coffee seeds should be nurtured in a nursery for 6-12 months before being planted in the field. The recommended planting density for Robusta coffee is 1,100-1,300 plants per hectare, with row spacing of 2.5-3 meters and plant spacing of 1-1.2 meters.

Efficient watering practices

Proper irrigation is crucial for the healthy growth, even flowering, and high yield of coffee plants. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) recommends an average water requirement of 1,500-2,000 liters per plant per year. Using drip irrigation or sprinkler systems can save 40-50% of water compared to traditional methods.

Nutritional needs

Fertilizing coffee plants should be based on their nutritional needs at different growth stages and soil analysis results. The Vietnam Academy of Agricultural Sciences suggests an average fertilizer dosage for a hectare of mature coffee trees to be 250-300 kg of nitrogen (N), 100-150 kg of phosphorus (P2O5), and 200-300 kg of potassium (K2O). Regular organic fertilization 2-3 times a year improves soil quality and provides sustainable nutrients.

Pruning and canopy management

Pruning is essential for maintaining a balanced, well-ventilated canopy, concentrating nutrients for the fruit. The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development recommends pruning 2-3 times a year to remove old, overgrown, and diseased branches, keeping an optimal number of 25-35 fruit-bearing branches per tree.

Pest and disease control

Pests and diseases significantly affect coffee yield and quality. Common threats include stem borers, leaf aphids, and rust disease. Regular field inspections, early detection, and the application of integrated pest management (IPM) strategies are crucial for effective pest control.

Understanding and implementing these meticulous techniques ensure that each coffee plant is nurtured to its full potential, resulting in beans that deliver a superior coffee experience, reflecting the dedication and harmony between nature and human effort

Coffe cultivation and harvesting: A dance of nature and humanityFor producing Specialty Coffee, the care process requires even more precision and attention. Producers often prioritize the use of organic fertilizers, implement IPM practices, and minimize the use of pesticides. This not only ensures the quality of the coffee beans but also demonstrates a commitment to environmental sustainability and consumer health.


Coffee harvesting methods: Hand vs. Machine


Manual harvesting and its advantages

According to the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, over 90% of Vietnam’s coffee is harvested manually. The primary advantage of hand-picking is the ability to ensure high-quality cherries, minimizing the presence of unripe or damaged fruit. However, this method is labor-intensive and time-consuming, with harvesting costs accounting for 30-40% of total production expenses.

Mechanical harvesting and its conditions

In contrast, mechanical harvesting can increase labor productivity by 10-15 times compared to hand-picking. However, the Central Highlands Research Center for Industrial and Fruit Crops warns that improper use of machinery can lead to fruit dropping, bruising, contamination, and damage to the trees. Therefore, it is essential to develop mechanized harvesting processes suited to specific coffee varieties, field conditions, and management practices.

Coffe cultivation and harvesting: A dance of nature and humanityFor Specialty Coffee, hand harvesting is mandatory. Harvesters selectively pick only the ripest cherries, ensuring uniform ripeness and minimizing the presence of unripe or damaged fruit. Although this process requires more time and effort, it results in superior coffee quality.


Impact of timing and harvesting methods on coffee quality


Ripening stage and coffee quality

Research by the Institute of Vegetable and Fruit Research indicates that coffee cherries achieve their best quality when harvested at full red ripeness. At this stage, the beans have optimal levels of sugar, caffeine, fat, and aromatic compounds. Harvesting green cherries results in lower sugar and fat content, while overripe cherries are prone to fermentation and spoilage. The International Coffee Organization (ICO) recommends harvesting coffee in multiple rounds, approximately 3-4 times per season, to ensure uniform ripeness.

Importance of harvesting time of day

The time of day when coffee is harvested also affects its quality. Studies by the Center for Research and Technology Transfer show that coffee picked in the morning, after the dew has dried, has a higher germination rate and less spoilage compared to coffee harvested in the afternoon. Morning harvesting is beneficial because the cherries contain less water, reducing the risk of mold growth during storage and processing.

Coffe cultivation and harvesting: A dance of nature and humanityFor Specialty Coffee, the standards for harvest timing are even stricter. Coffee experts advise harvesting on dry days and avoiding days following rain, as high humidity can compromise bean quality. Additionally, the sorting and preliminary processing of the coffee must be done promptly to preserve the beans’ natural flavors.

Understanding these factors ensures that each coffee bean reaches its full potential, offering a superior coffee experience that reflects the precision and care in its cultivation and harvesting.


Differences in coffee cultivation methods


Traditional farming and its challenges

According to reports from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, traditional coffee farming accounts for 80-90% of Vietnam’s coffee acreage. This method yields relatively high productivity, averaging 2.5-3 tons of beans per hectare. However, traditional farming relies heavily on chemical fertilizers and pesticides, posing risks of environmental pollution, soil degradation, and chemical residues in the final product.

Organic farming – An inevitable trend

Organic coffee farming is gaining attention. According to the standards set by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), organic coffee farming avoids synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, instead employing environmentally friendly practices such as water-saving irrigation, soil covering, and integrated pest management (IPM). While organic coffee is safer for consumer health and commands a higher market price, its yield is typically 20-30% lower than that of traditional farming.

Sustainable farming – The future choice

Sustainable coffee farming is becoming increasingly popular. The Rainforest Alliance defines sustainable coffee farming as a method that harmonizes economic benefits, environmental protection, and social responsibility. Sustainable farming practices include using quality coffee varieties, balanced nutrient management, water-efficient irrigation, IPM, shade creation, and biodiversity conservation. The International Coffee Organization (ICO) estimates that sustainably certified coffee can increase farmers’ incomes by 30-40% and ensure long-term stable development.

Coffe cultivation and harvesting: A dance of nature and humanitySome Specialty coffee farms go even further by adopting ecological farming methods. They create a natural ecosystem within the coffee farm, featuring diverse plant and animal species. This approach not only protects the environment but also helps coffee plants grow healthier, yielding beans with unique flavors.

Specialty Coffee – The art of coffee in its purest form

In addition to enhancing the productivity and quality of regular coffee, many Vietnamese farmers and enterprises are moving towards producing Specialty Coffee. This coffee is grown in regions with unique geographical and climatic conditions, meticulously cared for, and harvested at peak ripeness. The beans are then processed through strict protocols to preserve their natural flavors. Specialty coffee offers an exceptional sensory experience, with rich aromas, profound aftertastes, and delicate acidity. It represents the art of coffee in its purest form, a source of pride for growers and connoisseurs worldwide.


In summary, the process of growing and harvesting plays a crucial role in producing quality coffee. In-depth research on ecological conditions, the application of advanced farming techniques, selecting appropriate timing and methods for harvesting, and developing sustainable production practices are key factors determining the yield, quality, and economic efficiency of coffee.

With the efforts of scientists, producers, and support from both domestic and international organizations, Vietnam’s coffee industry is gradually establishing its position and enhancing its value in the global market. In the future, as consumer trends increasingly favor quality and sustainability, Vietnam has the potential to develop into a coffee powerhouse, providing exceptional products to coffee lovers worldwide.

The journey from humble coffee beans on the mountainsides to the aromatic cup on your table is a miraculous process involving nature and human craftsmanship. Each cup of coffee is a miniature masterpiece, embodying the labor, dedication, and aspirations of many. Savor and appreciate the wonderful flavors, for behind each drop of coffee lies a journey that touches the deepest emotions of life.




Q1: Why are temperature and humidity important for coffee plant growth?

A1: Temperature and humidity are crucial factors influencing the growth and development of coffee plants. The ideal temperature range for coffee is 18-22°C, with a variation of no more than 5°C. Extreme temperatures, either too low or too high, can negatively affect flowering, fruit setting, and bean quality. Air and soil humidity should be maintained at 60-80% to ensure optimal growth and high yields.

Q2: How do Specialty Coffee and regular coffee differ in cultivation processes?

A2: Specialty Coffee is cultivated with more stringent and meticulous processes compared to regular coffee. The requirements for growth conditions, care techniques, harvesting, and processing are more rigorous. Specialty Coffee is often grown at ideal altitudes, uses organic fertilizers, employs integrated pest management (IPM), is hand-harvested, and processed through strict protocols to ensure exceptional quality.

Q3: Why is pruning and canopy management important in coffee care?

A3: Pruning and canopy management are crucial techniques in coffee care. The main goal is to maintain a well-ventilated, balanced canopy that concentrates nutrients on the fruit. Removing old, overgrown, and diseased branches keeps the plant healthy, reduces pest and disease risks, and helps the plant produce better yields and higher quality beans.

Q4: What are the differences between hand and machine coffee harvesting?

A4: Hand harvesting ensures better bean quality as harvesters can selectively pick ripe cherries, minimizing unripe and damaged fruit. However, it is time-consuming and labor-intensive. In contrast, machine harvesting is 10-15 times more productive but harder to control for quality, often causing tree damage and affecting bean quality. Hand harvesting is mandatory for Specialty Coffee to maintain its high standards.

Q5: What are the benefits of sustainable coffee farming compared to traditional methods?

A5: Sustainable coffee farming offers numerous benefits over traditional methods. It harmonizes economic benefits, environmental protection, and social responsibility. Sustainable practices, such as using quality varieties, balanced nutrient management, water-saving irrigation, IPM, shade creation, and biodiversity conservation, improve yield and coffee quality, protect the environment, and enhance farmers’ incomes.

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